ECO GENEVA (INC) #4A June 23, 1991 
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 ECO GENEVA (INC) #4A June 23, 1991

From: <larris>
Subject: ECO GENEVA (INC) #4A June 23, 1991 (28K)

                          ECO NEWSLETTER


                          June 23, 1991
                            Issue #4A

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

1) Carbon Club - Emission Targets & Timetables: OECD Countries
2) Environment and Development Action in the Third World (ENDA.TM)
      (in French)
3) Energy, Structure and Environment
4) Nuclear Power and Energy Efficiency: Two Options
5) 79 Seconds That Will Fail to Change the World (ed.)
6) Energy: Technology, Economy, Environment, Society in Hungary
7) The Present State and Future Prospects of Electricity
      Generation in Poland

1) Carbon Club -- Emission Targets and timetables: OECD countries

Country/ Target/ When Set/ Instruments - Strategy*/ Comments -
Caveats/ Implementation

*see end of article for key

Australia/ Stabilize CO2, CH4, N20 at 1988 levels by 2000, reduce
20 percent by 2005/ October 1990 Cabinet decision./ E/ At SWCC,
noted that it was an "inter planning target" and that Australia
"will not proceed unilaterally with measures that will have a net
adverse economic impact nationally, or on our trade
competitiveness."/ Industries and energy minister required to
report to Cabinet (October 1990) on short-term measures.
Government Ecology Sustainable Development working group report
on options to meet targets; Energy, Economic Ministry comments by
end 1990. Cabinet review of target October 1991

Austria/ Reduce CO2 20 percent from 1988 level by 2005/ June 1990
Cabinet decision/ C,P,R,T,V/ "Preliminary" government report
indicates reductions easily achievable. Target not yet approved by
Parliament./ Studies of implementation measures under way
November 1990.

Belgium/ Reduce CO2 5 percent from 1990 level by 2000. Explore
possibility of further reductions./ Noted at Second World Climate
Conference (SWCC) Ministerial/ E,D,N/ Policies still being
developed. Transfer of implementation responsibilities for
environmental regulations to regions 1 January 1989 has
complicated Belgian environmental policymaking. Association of
Electricity and Gas Producers says CO2 emissions will increase
because no new nuclear plants will come on line for at least
several years.

Canada/ Stabilize all non-CFC gases at 1990 levels by 2000.
Explore possibility of 20-percent cut by 2005./ June 1990 Cabinet
decision, reiterated in December 1990 Green Plan./ A,B,M,V/ Must
sell to skeptical energy-producing provinces. Provinces hold
substantial sway in energy and environmental policy. Government
reports show difficulty reaching stabilization target. Base year
originally 1988, moved up to 1990 in November./ Legislation under
Green Plan most likely to be introduced in 1991.

Denmark/ Stabilize CO2 at 1988 level by 2000, reduce 20 percent
by 2005, including a 50-percent reduction in energy sector CO2./
Set by government April 1990; approved by Parliament in May./
A,B,C,D,F,R,T/ Policy instruments still being developed.
"Concrete measures to meet the targets will be introduced over
the coming years," according to government statement. Industry
association concerned for impact on Danish competitiveness.

Finland/ Stabilize CO2 at current level per European
Community-European Free Trade Association (EFTA) accord. Agrees
with need to reduce emissions 20 percent as soon as possible./
Noted at SWCC Ministerial, November 1990./ T/ Noted at SWCC
preministerial that decisions on targets "still ahead of us."
Policies still being developed. Would have to increase coal use
if Swedish nuclear power phased out. 1990 government study says
50-percent increase in CO2 1990-2010 under current policies,
stabilization not before 2005 under fossil-fuel minimization
program./ National energy policy will be reviewed February 1991.
Helsinki recently commissioned group of government experts to
study national reduction measures; their report is due April 1991.

France/ Stabilize CO2 at 2.0 metric tons per capita by 2000./
September 1990 Cabinet decision./ E,N/ Allows up to 25-percent
increase 1988-2000. Contingent on other industrialized countries
taking similar action./ Legislation still sketchy.

Germany/ Reduce CO2 25 to 30 percent from 1987 level by 2005,
including a 25 percent reduction in former West Germany; control
methane whenever possible./ June 1990 Cabinet decision/
C,D,E,L,R,T,V,X/ Industry Association concerned about loss of
competitiveness. Early 1990 Economics Ministry study shows only
10 percent reduction possible by 2005. Nonetheless, Germany seems
committed to target./ Policy recommendations forwarded by
interagency working group November 1990. Discussion/approval 1991.

Greece/ None, but agreed to European Community target./ October

Iceland/ Stabilize "greenhouse gases" at 1990 levels by 2000./
Noted at SWCC Ministerial, November 1990./ E,R,Z/ Examination of
policy instruments just beginning./ Proposals to be submitted to
Parliament 1991.

Ireland/ None, but agreed to European Community target./ October
1990./ C,E// Eight studies commissioned by government should
appear in January 1991.

Italy/ None, but agreed to European Community target./ October
1990. /F,R,T/ Has backtracked from commitment to targets noted by
Environment Minister Ruffulo in June 1990. Rapid economic growth
makes stabilization difficult./ Studies under way late 1990 on
implementation measures. Revised national Energy Plan due end

Japan/ Stabilize per capita CO2 at 1990 level by 2000. Absolute
stabilization of methane and, if possible, other gases at current
levels./ October 1990, in Action Program to arrest Global Warming
adopted by Council of Ministers for Global Environmental
Conservation./ E,X,N,D,B,R,L,C/ Will implement measures "as they
become feasible," says government. Action Program to be
implemented without disrupting economic growth. Government using
traditional tactics of persuasion and consensus to convince
industry, local governments to go along. Government subsidies for
electric vehicles being planned. Major auto manufacturer
announced plan January 1991 to reduce auto CO2. Tokyo Electric
Power Co. developing technology to remove, dispose of CO2 in
power production.

Luxembourg/ Agreed to European Community target, may follow
Belgian target./ October 1990./ E/ Assumed EC presidency 1
January 1991. Currently has largest per capita CO2 emission among
OECD countries.

Netherlands/ Stabilize CO2 at 1989-90 level by 1995 (if possible
1994), reduce 3 to 5 percent by 2000./ Announced November 1989.
Approved by parliament 1990./ A,B,D,T/ Dutch officials note
industry sector supports stabilization by 2000, not necessarily
1995. Policy instruments will be implemented over several years.
Measures to reach 5-percent reduction may not be announced until
1995./ Inventory of all emissions control measures will be
undertaken by the end of 1991 to determine what additional
regulatory and fiscal instruments are needed to meet the targets.

New Zealand/ Reduce CO2 20 percent from 1990 level by 2005./ June
1990 Cabinet decision./// Non-CO2 greenhouse gases to be
addressed in memorandum on climate change, to be published in
1991. Government researching implications of 60 percent CO2 cut
by the year 2000, 15 percent CH4 cut by the year 2020.

Norway/ Stabilize CO2 at 1989 level by 2000./ 1989 Cabinet
decision./ T/ Target is "preliminary" goal that must be
"continuously analyzed in the light of technological development,
the outcome of further research and the results of international
negotiations and agreement," according to SWCC statement./
National analysis of scenarios and strategies "nearly complete."
November 1990.

Portugal/ None, but agreed to European Community target./ October
1990./ E/ Current energy policy not established with particular
regard to CO2 emissions or climate change. CO2 emissions expected
to grow until at least 2000.

Spain/ None, but agreed to European Community target./ October
1990/ L/ Noted at SWCC that small energy consumers should have
right to expand. Favors per capita based targets./ New National
Energy Plan to be submitted to Parliament b early 1991.

Sweden/ February 1991 energy plan drops government's previous
insistence (based on 1988 parliamentary mandate) on freezing CO2
at 1988 level. Unclear whether it will continue to adhere to EFTA
target./ 1988 Parliamentary mandate./ N,T/ Will not undertake
conservation measures in electricity generation and
energy-intensive industries unless its competitors do. Having
difficulty reconciling emission targets with 1980 referendum that
resulted in decision to phase out nuclear power by 2010, which
remains intact under February 1991 plan./ Energy plan presumably
must still be approved by Parliament. Carbon tax in place late

Switzerland/ No firm commitment other than European Free Trade
Association accord; however, Switzerland expects to make
10-percent CO2 reduction by 2000. Experts looking at 20-percent
reduction by 2005, 50 percent by 2025./ November 1990/ E,T/
September 1990 referendum sets 10-year moratorium on licensing of
new nuclear plants./ Studies on CO2 reduction strategies being
carried out in several ministries. Results by summer 1991.
parliamentary decree on rational use of energy expected 1991.

Turkey/ None.// E,F,L,R/ Ankara believes no urgent need for
targets in Turkey until it matches CO2 use in other OECD

United Kingdom/ Stabilize CO2 at 1990 level by 2005./ June 1990
Cabinet decision./ A,B,D,E,R/ Will only take action if its
industrial competitors also do so. Voluntary measures preferred./
Tightened building regulations came into force 1 April 1990.
Order requiring electricity suppliers to contract for renewables
entered into force September 1990. Further orders in coming years.

Note: The USA is not included here because it has not committed
to any target or timetable - in fact White House Chief of Staff
John Sununu has specifically ruled out any commitment, thus
putting the USA on the same level as Turkey. Also, no reference
is made to the CO2 stabilisation target for the EC as a whole.
This chart was prepared for the US State Department, based on
information at its disposal as of February this year. Eco would
be interested in comments on its accuracy: for example New
Zealand changed its policy in October.

KEY: Instruments/Strategy Legend
A Increase appliance efficiency standards.
B Tighter building codes.
C Encourage energy conservation.
D Encourage combined heat/power or district heating systems.
E Stress energy efficiency.
F Encourage fuel switching.
L Improved Coal combustion technology.
M Better electricity demand management.
N Continue/expand nuclear power.
P New energy pricing scheme.
R Encourage renewable energy development.
T Carbon tax.
V Increase vehicle efficiency standards.
X More rational transport system.
Z Reforestation.

Greenhouse Gases
CO2  Carbon dioxide
CH4  Methane
N2O  Nitrous oxide

2) Environment and Development Action in the Third World (ENDA.TM)

Abou Thiam

ENDA est une organisation internationale (non-gouvernmentale)
cree en 1972 apres la premiere conference des Nations Unies sur
l'Environnement et le Developpement, tenue a Stockholm. Le siege
international de l'organisation se trouve a Dakar (Senegal).
Bureaux et antennes ENDA se situent dans plusieurs pays,
notamment a Tunis (Tunisie), Rabat (Maroc), Harare (Zimbabwe),
Saint Dominique (Rep. Dominicaine) etc.

L'objectif principal d'ENDA est d'apporter un appui aux groupes
de base defavorises du Tiers Monde afin de promouvoir leur
auto-developpement en tenant compte du milieu ecologique. Ce type
de developpement suppose la prise en compte a tous les niveaux
des initiatives des interesses et de leur savoir-faire.

Un autre objectif poursuivi par ENDA est d'affecter sa
contribution aux debats et actions entreprises tant au plan
national qu'international, dans la domaine de l'environnement et
du developpement. Il convient de noter que les problemes de
developpement sont lies a ceux de l'environnement. Ces problemes,
complexes a tous points de vue, ne peuvent etre abordes en vue de
solutions durables que de maniere globale. C'est pourquoi dans
son approche de ces problemes, ENDA adopte une demarche
environmentale globale.

Ainsi, les domaines d'activites de l'organisation sont nombreux
et diversifies. ENDA mene avec ses partenaires des actions de
formation, de recherche-action, dans les domaines de la
desertification, deforestation, l'amenagement de territoire, les
pesticides et l'agriculture durable, la sante et les plantes
medicinales, l'education environmentale, l'energie et la
technologie, etc.

Au plan international ENDA participe a plusieurs networks sur des
defis environmentaux majeur qu'interessent tous. C'est ainsi que
ENDA co-ordonne en Afrique francophone les activites du reseau
PAN (Pesticide Action Network) - ENDA met un accent sur la
dissemination de l'information a tous les riveaux. Il dispose
d'un service de publication et de diffusion qui produit plusieurs
revues et magazines traitant de toutes les questions liees a
l'environnement et au developpement. Dans ce domaine, un service
audio-visuel a ete mis en place. Il produit films, diapositives,
bandes sonores sur ces difficiles questions.

Pour toutes informations, s'addresser a: ENDA TM, Bl 33 Dakar,
Senegal, Tel (221) 2160.27 et 2242.29, Fax (221) 22 2695, Telex:
51 456 56.

3) Energy, Structure and Environment

Central and eastern European energy economies are half as
efficient as those of market economies. To a large extent, this
"gap" simply reflects inefficient energy use, but there are other
reasons... Efficiency gaps exist between market economies as well.

Reducing this gap by half would save 540 million tonnes of oil
equivalent in the year 2000, and 600 million tonnes in 2010, of
which 90% would be fossil fuels. Harmful emission of SO2 and CO2
would be reduced by 20-25% in comparison with continuing trends
in the ECE region. Reducing CO2 emissions by 10% in the ECE
region translates into a 5-6% reduction of global CO2 levels.
NGOs from Eastern and Central Europe met last week in
Czechoslovakia to reflect on the future of energy policies in
their countries.

The actual pattern of energy production and consumption is one of
the main causes of the severe environmental problems in their
countries. Energy policy has always been focused on maximization
of production, and energy conservation is virtually non-existent.
Nuclear energy is the first, apparently "easy", solution which is
offered by foreign investors.

After a three day seminar, NGOs agreed on a common statement,
extracts of which are reproduced below. It was also decided to
establish a formal NGO Energy Policy Network.

* For further information, contact Nara Silina, European
Coordination Friends of the Earth Central and Eastern Europe.,
P.O. Box 163 81499 Bratislava, Tel (62) 7 49 5264 Fax (62) 7 49

4) Nuclear Power and Energy Efficiency: Two Options

14-17 June 1991, Celakovice, Czechoslovakia: Conference Statement
(excerpt) - 17 June

We call upon our governments to use the opportunity for
innovation in energy policy development offered by the period of
transition in economic and political systems in Central and
Eastern Europe. Such innovation would address the serious
economic, environmental and social problems in our countries,
avoid the mistakes of other industrialised countries, and
contribute to global sustainable development.

Governments should examine both supply-side and demand-side
options for meeting demand for energy services and introduce
policies to favour those options which offer the lowest
environmental and economic cost.

Governments should recognise the unacceptable costs and dangers
imposed by nuclear power, the negative experience to date of most
countries with nuclear power programmes and the significant costs
of clean up to be met in the future.

Through the actions outlined here, the countries of Central and
Eastern Europe could set a leading example for the rest of the
world in the necessary transition towards an environmentally
sustainable future.

Energy Efficiency

Governments should establish the fiscal, institutional and
legislative framework to encourage energy efficiency and
discourage energy wastage. Such a comprehensive framework would

o the provision of financial incentives for energy efficiency

o the introduction of energy utility regulations to promote
energy efficiency ahead of energy supply.

o the setting of rigorous energy efficiency standards for
buildings, vehicles, appliances, lighting, and industrial

o the development of energy pricing policies to encourage energy
efficiency an reflect environmental costs of energy sources,
taking into consideration the socio-economic impacts.

o the establishment of public education programmes on energy

o the encouragement of technical innovation and demonstration
through Government support and procurement policies.

o the encouragement of co-generation and other more efficient
energy supply-side technologies when replacing or reconstructing
energy supply systems.

o a move toward decentralised energy planning.


Governments should assess the renewable energy potential for our
countries, taking into account the distinct environmental
advantages offered by decentralised renewable energy technologies
over fossil fuel and nuclear power technologies.

Nuclear Power

A moratorium should be imposed on the construction of nuclear
power stations.

A comprehensive programme should be urgently developed for the
decommissioning of existing nuclear power plants and clean-up of
nuclear sites (including radioactive waste dumps, reprocessing
facilities, test sites and uranium mines).

The costs of any improvements in nuclear reactor safety should be
compared with the costs of displacing the need for the reactor
through improved energy efficiency and the development of
renewable energy sources.

The conclusions of the report of the International Atomic Energy
Agency on the Chernobyl project should be questioned and fully
independent long-term studies of the health effects of low level
radiation exposure be established.

Public Involvement and Access to Information

Accurate data on the costs, safety and environmental impacts of
energy production and the potential for energy efficiency
improvements and renewable energy sources should be accessible to
the public.

The development of energy policies should involve public interest
groups and non-governmental organisations at local, regional and
national levels.

5) 79 Seconds that Will Fail to Change the World

Every year the world spends US$1,000 billion on weapons. In a day
governments spend $US2.7 billion, in an hour $US114 billion, in a
minute $US1.9 million, in a second, over thirty thousand US

Tomorrow these self-same `governments' will spend an hour arguing
about whether or not they can afford $US2.5m to finance the talks
which are the world's best hope of averting a global warming
catastrophe. In that time they will be spending fifty times as
much on armaments. Why ? You'll have to ask them that.

So-called developing countries are little better in this respect
- sometimes much worse - than the rich nations of the OECD. The
environmental, health and social problems of the South are
frequently as much to do with the squandering of national wealth
on tanks, jet aircraft and rockets as they are to do with the
much discussed growth of population or inequitable trade
relations with the North. And while the North - even the
ecologically minded Swiss and Swedes - are in effect active
gun-runners in this suicidal pact, the developing world too is
building up its own arms business.

Today it is scandalous, and would be laughable were the stakes
for the people of the world not so high, that the climate
convention is in jeopardy for want of 79 seconds worth of arms

Up to and beyond the signing of a Climate Convention, it will no
doubt remain a global atrocity which the generations of the 21st
Century will not forgive us for, that while the warming took
hold, our governments failed to declare war on pollution which
changed the climate, and instead squandered the people's
resources on stockpiling weapons of destruction.

6) Energy: Technology, Economy, Environment, Society in Hungary

by Fleischer Tamas - ISTER East European Environmental Research

In the past, eastern and central European countries, adapting
themselves to Soviet energy supply, fell in the trap of "cheap
energy." But contrary to received opinion in Hungary, it is not
more energy that is now needed for economic growth but
restructuring. Indeed, excessive investment in the energy supply
sector draws away resources from the restructuring of industry as
a whole, and with it the potential for increasing competitiveness
through more efficient energy use.

Technological thinking about energy systems creates a short-cut
between a review of sources and needs. Institutional structures
and the desire for self-justification repeatedly focus attention
on always on the same insoluble problems. East-European and
industrial thinking continually falls into the trap of linking
the wishes of powerful state hierarchies and opportunities for
technological development: a classic vulnerability of large

The wastage of resources is caused not only by distorted price
relations but also the interest of the producer in being
irresponsible: this is the trap of needs overestimation
(supply-fix forecasting).

To justify investing in ever increasing energy supply, the energy
bureaucracies have developed a view of risk in which the danger
is only defined in terms of a potential shortage of energy. By
this thinking, it is not a problem if national economy spends too
much on energy producing capacity, thereby drawing away capital
from manufacturing industry.

Similarly, when production capacity is itself adapted to these
wrongly assessed needs - driven by energy supply - the chance of
financing other necessary investments is greatly reduced. A cycle
of self-justification then follows.

Analysis of future needs must now be separated from these
interests, in order to lay the foundations for real structural

7) The Present State and Future Prospects of Electricity Generation
in Poland

Adapted by Eco staff, from a speech by Dr. Jozef Gega

Eighty per cent of electricity generated in Poland is derived
from hard coal and brown coal burning. Poland uses (according to
1989 data), 4.7 tons of coal equivalent fuel per capita. Polish
energy consumption is approximately the same as that in Japan.
However, the percentage of energy use per unit of GNP is 13% in
Poland compared to 4% in Japan.

Inefficiency in energy use in Poland is caused by the following

o comparatively small contribution of service trades in producing

o comparatively large contribution of the raw material industry
towards GNP creation;

o low energy prices promoting waste;

o heat and energy waste caused by lack of adequate insulation; and

o low quality of products.

Positive changes should be expected in energy policies as a
result of economic reforms being put into effect. These include
the following:

o changing the mix of energy supply by shifting to gas, oil and
hydro power;

o increasing energy efficiency;

o elimination of energy waste;

o increasing the service sector while reducing energy-consuming
industries; and

o changing energy pricing so as to reflect more fully real costs
and bring such pricing more in line with those in western
industrialized countries.

Rational and Efficient Energy use

Emphasizing energy efficiency as a vital component of electricity
supply is essential. Presently, energy use in the domestic sector
is decreasing, but energy consumption in the industry sector is
increasing. Another factor that makes the economic situation
worse is the increasing production of coal which still is the
main energy source in Poland. In addition, the price of imports
from USSR fuels such as coal and oil increased dramatically since
they have been charged in US$ rather than Rubles. The negative
effects of foreign exchange shift should be ameliorated by energy
consumption reductions. Unfortunately, this kind of policy is not
seen in Poland yet.

In the past, the only way of meeting the needs of energy in the
country was the expansion of power plants instead of putting
emphasis on domestic energy savings and improving the quality of
distribution processes. The situation of Polish power supply
today has not improved. Low energy consuming industries are
facing difficulties, while those with high energy consumption
remain largely unaffected.

The stimulation of rationalization of energy policy needs
regulation to have an effect on macroeconomic conditions.
However, centralized energy systems management is not favourable
to rationalization of energy policy. The present situation of
centrally managed energy policy at regional levels is divided
into single energy distributors which cannot take optimal
decisions. Very often, there exists an artificial ownership of
shares and attribution of competences. We consider that it would
be better to establish a regional autonomy in energy policy on
the basis of integrated systems of all kinds of fuels, heat and
electricity sources. Central management should be left only to
high voltage lines. The real energy prices for households would
be regionally established local prices. This programme has to
take into consideration the serious problem of Polish industry

To conclude, we recommend the following measures to implement
economic energy development in Poland, including energy
efficiency and improvement of ecological conditions:

o energy savings;

o rational use of energy;

o changes in fuel mix towards increasing the percentage use of
hydrocarbon fuels less threatening to the environment than coal;

o restructuring and reconstruction of the fuel-energy industry as
well the highest energy-consuming industries and introduction of
modern technical solutions to save energy and protect the

o switch from centrally managed energy systems to regional
management systems; o a reform of energy pricing; and

o establishment of economically viable financing mechanisms for
power supply.

Contact: Polish Ecological Club, ul. Garbaka 9, Krakow, Poland



Lelani Arris                           * Project Director
EcoNet:    larris                      * EcoNet Energy & Climate

Telephone: 403-852-4057                * Jasper, Alberta T0E 1E0
Fax:       403-852-3215                * Canada

Sat, 11 Dec 1993 03:59:00 GMT
 [ 1 post ] 

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