Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!) 
Author Message
 Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!)

Avoid mosquitoes. The government does not understand LD. Wear protection
from mosquitoes. You are all being bit but you do not pay attention to the
bites because everyone says its the ticks. It's mosquitoes!

Fri, 20 Jan 2006 10:51:57 GMT
 Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!)
I think you're right.  Lyme can be transmitted by ticks, mosquitoes, and even
dragonflies.  Indeed, I spoke with a lyme patient out East who developed an
immediate lyme rash when bitten by a dragonfly. And, who knows what else might
transmit diseases that now are generally blamed on ticks alone.

Sat, 21 Jan 2006 02:31:22 GMT
 Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!)

source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases  .  Vol.
154,  No. 2  .  
August 1986.
title:  "The Etiologic Agent
of Lyme Disease in Deer Flies, Horse flies, and Mosquitoes"
authors: Louis A. Magnarelli, John F. Anderson, Alan G. Barbour

This is the first report of B. burgdorferi in horse flies, deer flies and
mosquitoes.  ....the number of infected deer flies and horse flies varied with
the species and sampling areas....Also, like mosquitoes and other biting
insects, the {*filter*}- feeding behavior of female tabanids  differs  within and
between species, and infection may be correlated , in part, with the quantities
of {*filter*} ingested.......  ......Serological studies of mammals and
identification of B. burgdorferi have established that this agent is widely
distributed within given habitats in the United States and that closely related
strains exist in Europe.  The presence of this bacterium in tabanids and
mosquitoes increases the risk of Lyme disease in tick infested areas.  these
and other {*filter*} sucking arthropods should recieve further consideration in
ecological and epidemiological studies of this disease and of related
disorders.  ..."

from :  Taber's Medical  Dictionary
Tabanids--a member of the dipterous family Tabanidae.
Tabinidae- A family of insects belonging to the order Diptera.  It includes
horseflies, gadflies, deer flies, and mango flies, all {*filter*}sucking insects
that attack humans and other warm-{*filter*}ed animals. Tabanidae is important
because flies serve in the transmission of the filaria worm, Loa loa,
tularemia, anthrax and other diseases.  Their bites are extremely painful and
heal with difficulty.
".........Studies have demonstrated that deerflies,
 horseflies, and mosquitos can carry the B. burgdorferi

source:  Lyme Disease and Its Neurological Complications
author Michael F. Finkle, MD
source:  Archives of Neurol--Vol. 45, Jan 1986

" some parts of the United States, 100% of the
 examined ticks  have been infected.............

"...Ticks species that are themselves infected to a higher
degree will increase the reservoir pool among the different
animal species and increase the likelihood that human
 beings will become infected.(21,22,28-33)  Studies
 also indicate that birds can serve as hosts......
.and thus act as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi.  The bird reservoir
 allows for long distance dispersal of the spirochete within and between
continents.........Studies have demonstrated that deerflies,
 horseflies, and mosquitos can carry the B. burgdorferi
 spirochete....The percentage of infected flies increases in areas
where I. dammini    is present.  Therefore, these flies are probably serving
as secondary vectors....."
 [I. dammini was name the  given to the
deer tick   I. scapularis-- for a short time --someone thought
it was a new species]

"An additonal concern for clinicians is the possibility that the ..tick may
simulataneously  expose an individual to two organisms that
 can present with central nervous system symptoms.
 Cases have been reported in Wisconsin and New York
of people with direct infection as well as antibodies
 against both the Babesia microti organism and the B. burgdorferi
spirochete." (104-106)

Infection 1999;27(4-5):275-7 Related Articles, Books  

Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from overwintering Culex pipiens biotype molestus

Halouzka J, Wilske B, Stunzner D, Sanogo YO, Hubalek Z

Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic,

[Medline record in process]

During the years 1995-1996, a total of 1,743 overwintering Culex pipiens
biotype molestus female mosquitoes were tested for the presence of spirochetes
in several localities in South Moravia, Czech Republic.The spirochetes were
observed in 5% of the mosquitoes investigated. One of the five isolated strains
of spirochetes (BR-84) was identified as Borrelia afzelii. The potential role
of mosquitoes in the ecology and epidemiology of Lyme disease (LD) borreliae
should be further investigated.

PMID: 10885843, UI: 20340391

Title: Investigation of haematophagous [{*filter*} sucking] arthropods for
data, 1988-1996.
Authors: Hubalek Z, Halouzka J, Juricova Z
Source: Folia Parasitol (Praha) 1998;45(1):67-72
Organization: Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech

{*filter*}-sucking arthropods, collected in South Moravia, Czech Republic, were
examined by darkfield microscopy for borreliae from 1988 to 1996. Among
host-seeking ixodid ticks (8481 Ixodes ricinus (L.), 372 Dermacentor
reticulatus (Fabr.), 167 Haemaphysalis concinna Koch), borreliae were only
observed in {*filter*} (23.2%), nymphal (17.2%) and larval (6.3%) I. ricinus. The
prevalence of borreliae in I. ricinus did not vary considerably among habitats
except for lower values in agroecosystems, xerothermic oak woods and
grasslands. The frequency of intensity of spirochaetal infection (log10 counts
of borreliae per tick) in I. ricinus approximated the negative binomial
distribution. The proportions of host-seeking female and nymphal ticks
containing > 100 borreliae were 5.0% and 1.7%, respectively. Among preimaginal
ticks (749 I. ricinus, 222 D. reticulatus, 82 H. concinna) parasitizing
free-living forest birds and small mammals, borreliae were detected in 6.1% of
larval and 10.3% of nymphal I. ricinus, and in one larval H. concinna; 3.2% of
the birds and 19.4% of the mammals carried infected ticks. Among 3464 female
mosquitoes (Culicidae) of 6 species, 4.1% contained spirochaetes: 1.4% of Aedes
vexans Meig., 1.3% of A. cantans (Meig.), 2.2% of A. sticticus (Meig.), 2.2% of
Culex pipiens pipiens L. and 5.9% of C. p. molestus Forskal. Borreliae were
also detected in 8.4% of 142 fleas (Siphonaptera, largely Ctenophthalmus
agyrtes Heller and Hystrichopsylla talpae Curtis) collected from small mammals.
Twelve isolates of B. burgdorferi sensu lato have been identified to
genospecies: 6 strains from I. ricinus (4 Borrelia garinii Baranton et al., 1
B. afzelii Canica et al. and 1 B. lusitaniae Le Fleche et al.), 1 strain from
A. vexans (B. afzelii), 2 strains from C. agyrtes (B. afzelii), and 3 strains
from host rodents (B. afzelii).

Language: Eng

Unique ID: 98178065

"...... The potential role of mosquitoes in the
epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis should be investigated..."

Title: Isolation of the spirochaete Borrelia afzelii from the mosquito Aedes
vexans in the Czech Republic.
Authors: Halouzka J, Postic D, Hubalek Z
Source: Med Vet Entomol 1998 Jan;12(1):103-5
Organization: Institute of Landscape Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech

During the years 1993-1995, a total of 3580 culicine mosquitoes of six species
were collected in South Moravia, Czech Republic, and examined by dark-field
microscopy for the presence of borreliae. Females of Aedes cantans, Ae.
sticticus, Ae. vexans, Culex pipiens and Cx pipiens biotype molestus (but not
Ae. geniculatus or Culiseta annulata) harboured spirochaetes, the frequencies
ranging from 0.7% to 7.8%. One isolate (BR-53) from Ae. vexans was identified
as Borrelia afzelii genospecies. The potential role of mosquitoes in the
epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis should be investigated.

Language: Eng

Unique ID: 98175133

Title: The review of studies in vector ecology in Russia.
Authors: Nikolaeva N
Source: Bull Inst Marit Trop Med Gdynia 1996;47(1-4):73-83
Organization: Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ekaterinburg, Russia.

Studies on the vector ecology conducted in the Ural Region and elsewhere in the
former Soviet Union and in Russia in the years 1970-1995, are reviewed. For
many years, the information on the incidence of parasitic and vector-borne
diseases in the Soviet Union was not available. The recently published data
indicated that the actual figures for these diseases were many times higher
than those which were officially reported.

Language: Eng

Unique ID: 97255720

".......Transmitted by deer
ticks, mosquitoes, and deer flies...."

Title: Ocular lyme disease.
Authors: Hunt L
Source: Insight 1996 Jun;21(2):56-7

Lyme disease is reported from all over the United States. Transmitted by deer
ticks, mosquitoes, and deer flies, it affects numerous organ systems. All age
groups are vulnerable to this disease and must be educated about early signs
and symptoms to speed diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Language: Eng

Unique ID: 97112806
source: Lyme Disease 1991
                Patient/Physician Perspectives from the U.S. and Canada

    Skin Manifestations of Lyme Disease  by John Drulle M.D.

"Since Lyme disease is a widely disseminated, multi-organ system disease,
skin involvement is common, and occurs in about half of those infected.......

"The pathognomonic (diagnostic) rash of early Lyme is called EM(erythema
migrans--in Latin LErythema means redness, and migrans means migratory or
expanding).  It usually appears at the site of the tick, flea, fly, or
mosquito bite several days to a year or more later.  (It was recently
reported that 18% of the cases of Lyme in Austria are due to bites of
non-tick vectors  such as flies and perhaps mosquitos.  Borrelia
burgdorferi -Lyme spirochete- has been isolated from these insects.)  The
fact that one half of people who develope Lyme do not recall a tick bite
may be partially explained by non-tick vectors.  

  " ' The mosquito that carries the virus - Culex pipiens - is 'the most
common species in urban areas,' Fish says.  ' It is almost like a{*filter*}roach.' "

An extra from Durland Fish:

Here are some quotes from USA Today about the West Nile virus -
Sept. 29 page 1

" ' It's a good possibility the ...

read more »

Sat, 21 Jan 2006 08:24:41 GMT
 Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!)


>Date: 8/3/2003 10:51 PM Eastern Daylight Time
>Avoid mosquitoes. The government does not understand LD. Wear protection
>from mosquitoes. You are all being bit but you do not pay attention to the
>bites because everyone says its the ticks. It's mosquitoes!

Does the Hospital know you escaped?

Tue, 24 Jan 2006 09:01:54 GMT
 Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!)


>Date: 8/4/2003 2:31 PM Eastern
>I spoke with a lyme patient out East who developed an
>immediate lyme rash when bitten by a dragonfly


This has to be a joke

Tue, 24 Jan 2006 09:03:09 GMT
 Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!)


> >Date: 8/4/2003 2:31 PM Eastern

> >I spoke with a lyme patient out East who developed an
> >immediate lyme rash when bitten by a dragonfly

> LMAO....

> This has to be a joke

Magnarelli and Barbour published that Mosquitoes
Horseflies, and Deerflies carry Bb.

J Infect Dis. 1986 Aug;154(2):355-8.  Related Articles, Links  

The etiologic agent of Lyme disease in deer flies, horse flies, and mosquitoes.

Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Barbour AG.

PMID: 2873190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Thu, 26 Jan 2006 02:36:25 GMT
 Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!)
Infection of aquatic insects with trematode metacercariae carrying Ehrlichia
risticii, the cause of Potomac horse fever.
J Med Entomol 2000 Jul;37(4):619-25    (ISSN: 0022-2585)
Chae JS; Pusterla N; Johnson E; Derock E; Lawler SP; Madigan JE
College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Korea.
We provide evidence of Ehrlichia risticii Holland, the agent of Potomac horse
fever, in trematode stages found in aquatic insects collected from a pasture
stream in northern California, using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
amplification and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA, 51 kDa major antigen and
groEL heat shock protein genes. E. risticii was detected in metacercariae found
in the immatures and {*filter*}s of the following insects: caddisflies
(Trichoptera), mayflies (Ephemeroptera), damselflies (Odonata, Zygoptera),
dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera), and stoneflies (Plecoptera). The prevalence
of E. risticii was 31.9% (n = 454 individuals) in aquatic insects (13 of 17
species were positive). Prevalence within orders was as follows: 43.5% (n =
207) in caddisflies, 15.2% (n = 92) in mayflies, 13.9% (n = 115) in
damselflies, 10.0% (n = 10) in dragonflies, and 80.0% (n = 30) in stoneflies.
This study demonstrates a broad intermediate host range for trematodes that act
as vector for E. risticii. Insects are likely to play an important role in the
epidemiology of this disease.

Sat, 28 Jan 2006 09:52:03 GMT
 Multiple Mosquito bites cause Lyme Disease (ticks too!)
Infection status of dragonflies with Plagiorchis muris metacercariae in Korea.
Korean J Parasitol (Korea 1999 Jun;37(2):65-70    (ISSN: 0023-4001)
Hong SJ; Woo HC; Lee SU; Huh S
Department of Parasitology, Chung-Ang University Faculty of Medicine, Seoul,
Plagiorchis muris has been found in both house and field rats as well as in
humans. The infection status of the second intermediate hosts of P. muris is
prerequisite in understanding their biological features in an ecosystem. Six
species of dragonflies were caught in a wide range of areas in Korea; and they
were Sympetrum darwinianum, S. {*filter*}um, S. pedomontanum, S. infuscatum,
Pantala flavoscens, Calopteryx atrata, and Orthetrum albistylum speciosum. The
occurrence of P. muris metacercariae in dragonflies was nationwide with various
infection rates. The metacercarial burden of P. muris in the surveyed areas was
the highest in S. {*filter*}um followed by S. darwinianum, S. pedomontanum, and C.
atrata. The highest infection rate by P. muris metacercariae was found in S.
darwinianum followed by S. {*filter*}um. The metacercarial burden was particularly
heavy in the dragonflies found in Hamyang-gun and Kosong-gun, Kyongsangnam-do.
It is, therefore, likely that dragonflies play a significant role as the second
intermediate host in the life cycle of P. muris in Korea.

Sat, 28 Jan 2006 09:58:01 GMT
 [ 8 post ] 

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