HICN241 News Part 1/2 
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 HICN241 News Part 1/2

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Volume  2, Number 41                                      November  8, 1989

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              !                    Newsletter                  !
                         Editor: David Dodell, D.M.D.
                   St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center
    10250 North 92nd Street, Suite 210, Scottsdale, Arizona 85258-4599 USA
                           Telephone (602) 860-1121
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   Copyright 1989 - Distribution on Commercial/Pay Systems Prohibited without
                              Prior Authorization

             International Distribution Coordinator: Robert Klotz
                            Nova Research Institute
            217 South Flood Street, Norman, Oklahoma 73069-5462 USA
                           Telephone (405) 366-3898

The Health Info-Com Network Newsletter is distributed weekly.  Articles  on  a
medical  nature  are  welcomed.  If  you  have an article,  please contact the
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                       T A B L E   O F   C O N T E N T S

1.  Medical News
     Medical News for Week Ending November 5, 1989 .........................  1

2.  Center for Disease Control Reports
     [MMWR 11-2-89] Outbreak of Invasive Pneumoccal Disease in a Jail ......  7
     Safety-Restraint Assessment ...........................................  9
     Cost of Injury -- United States: A Report to Congress, 1989 ........... 12

3.  Dental News
     Dental News from the American Dental Association ...................... 15

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Volume  2, Number 41                                      November  8, 1989

                                 Medical News

                 Medical News for Week Ending November 5, 1989
        Copyright 1989: USA TODAY/Gannett National Information Network
                           Reprinted with Permission

                                 Oct. 30, 1989

                           {*filter*} ABUSE COULD RISE:

   As the baby boomers age,  {*filter*} abuse will most likely get worse,  said a
psychiatrist and researcher at the University of Michigan Medical Center. Why:
Loneliness. Findings: By year 2000 there will be 30 million Americans over age
60. About 700,000 will develop a drinking problem after that age.

                          EXERCISE FADES AWAY YEARS:

   An  average  woman in her 50s who exercise 30 minutes three times a week is
about equal in heart and lung function to a sedentary woman 20  years  younger
and  some are as young as those in their 20s,  said Dr.  Barbara Drinkwater of
Pacific Medical  Center,  Los  Angeles.  Exercise  lowers  risk  for  obesity,
hypertension and diabetes, builds bone strength.

                        KOOP SPEAKS ABOUT CHOLESTEROL:

   The cholesterol bubble is about to burst Former Surgeon General C.  Everett
Koop said Friday at a forum at  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  Boston.
Reason:  Skepticism  about  the  campaign  to  lower  serum cholesterol levels
through diet and {*filter*} would peak in about two months.

                           ASTHMA DRUG BEING PULLED:

   A new version of a widely used asthma  drug,  sold  under  the  brand  name
Alupent,  is  being taken off market shelves.  Why:  Increased reports of side
effects including coughing and {*filter*}, said the cooking.net">food and Drug Administration.
(From the USA TODAY Life section.)

                         IMPLANT HELPS TREAT GLAUCOMA:

   A mechanical drain placed inside the eye to  control  fluid  build-up  that
characterizes  glaucoma  is  successfully  treating  black  people who haven't
responded well to  conventional  surgical  techniques,  reports  the  American
Academy of Opthalmology,  San Francisco.  Using this method,  researchers were
able to control the disease in 72 percent of 83 patients.

                         LENS CASE SOURCE OF BACTERIA:

   Improper cleaning routines and length  of  wear  are  probably  causes  for
corneal infection among contact lens wearers,  reports the American Academy of
Opthalmology, San Francisco. Study revealed that ineffective storage solutions
and practices presented a serious source of bacterial contamination  that  can

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lead to eye infection.

                        RHINOPLASTY NOT ALWAYS WANTED:

   Most  people  think  changing the shape of their nose will make them happy,
reports the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. Findings:
Ninety percent of 120 rhinoplasty patients evaluated felt the surgery had been

                                 Oct. 31, 1989

                         PREGNANT WOMEN NEED CENTERS:

   Many pregnant women who are {*filter*}ed to {*filter*} are being  turned  away  from
treatment centers.  Reason: Many don't offer programs to treat pregnant women.
This problem and the problem of too few drug treatment centers were  discussed
Monday  before a House subcommittee considering a $700 million substance abuse
treatment bill. (From the USA TODAY News section.)

                        FINGERPRINT DETECTS EYE CANCER:

   The same genetic fingerprinting that can identify suspected  criminals  has
enabled  ophthalmologists  to  better  determine  if  an  infant is at risk of
developing retinoblastoma - a  rare  eye  cancer  that  is  often  hereditary,
reports  the  American  Academy  of  Ophthalmology.  Study:  In six out of six
families, experts were able to trace the inherited mutated gene.

                        DISORDER LINKED TO CAT SCRATCH:

   A researcher has confirmed a connection between neuroretinitis - a  sudden,
severe  loss  of  vision  that  can  last  for several weeks - and cat scratch
disease, reports the American Academy of Opthalmology.  Facts:  A scratch of a
kitten  whose  claws are infected with a certain rod-shaped bacillus can cause
the disorder.

                         FABRIC AIDS HEALTH PROGRESS:

   Johnson & Johnson has begun  marketing  a  biodegradable  called  Interceed
Absorbable  Adhesion  Barrier.  Use:  Surgeons  are  placing the fabric around
organs to separate them from body tissue following gynecologic pelvic surgery.
The fabric then forms a barrier  between  the  organs  and  tissue  and  keeps
unnatural adhesions between the two from forming.

                          CHECK KIDS HEALTH AT NIGHT:

   Day  care  experts advise parents that if they can't check their children's
health in the morning,  to check it the night before.  Reason:  More  children
are arriving at daycare centers in the morning sick. Parents should also check
for  "pink  eye" and never send a child to school with a temperature of 100 or

                        PRESSURE MAKES USER STOP {*filter*}:

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Volume  2, Number 41                                      November  8, 1989

   New York-based Phoenix House has become a model for  other  drug  treatment
center  around  the nation.  Why:  Center uses counseling and peer pressure to
force a user to face the problems that led to {*filter*}ion.  Success rate: Center
boasts a 70 percent success rate.

                        HELP FOR STROKE VICTIMS ON WAY:

   New technology could help prevent the disabilities caused by stroke, said a
doctor  at the University of California,  San Diego.  How:  By restoring {*filter*}
flow to the brain and preventing acute  nerve  cell  damage  by  administering
{*filter*}  right  after  stroke.  The  treatment could be available in five years,
experts said. (From the USA TODAY News section.)

                           SOFTWARE CAN ANALYZE DNA:

   Two new software packages for the Discovery Series  scanning  and  analysis
system were introduced by Protein Databases Inc.  Use:  DNA Code rapidly reads
DNA sequences from autoradiographic films, allows researchers to determine 500
bases of sequence from films in 3-4 minutes.  Quantity One tells the amount of
protein and DNA present in gels.

                                 Nov. 1, 1989

                          DRUG SETS BIOLOGICAL CLOCK:

   In  about five years,  new {*filter*} could be available to help people who work
nights or suffer from jet lag.  The breakthrough comes with the  discovery  of
receptors  on nerve cells that act as targets for the clock-regulating hormone
melatonin.  A researcher at Northwestern University says  the  first  drug  in
development is luzindole. (From the USA TODAY News section.)

                        DOCTOR IDENTIFIES HAIR GROWER:

   Skin Researcher Peter H.  Proctor, Ph.D, of Houston, has discovered how the
hair growth product minoxidil works by identifying  the  body's  natural  hair
growth stimulator -endothelium-derived relaxing factor.  Normally,  EDRF lives
only a few seconds in the body.  Minoxidil is a stable for EDRF  and  prevents
its breakdown.

                         BREAKTHROUGH IN EYE SURGERY:

   Aura Medical Systems Inc. announced Monday a new cataract removal procedure
that  keeps  the  lens  capsule intact,  which in turn allows the internal eye
muscles to retain the ability to focus.  How: A tiny magnetic bead is injected
by  syringe  into  the  cataract.  A  surgeon controls the bead to destroy the
cataract.  Cataract particles and bead are then withdrawn.

                          FOSCARNET DETERS BLINDNESS:

   Foscarnet, an antivirul drug that fights an AIDS-related eye infection,  is
effectively  controlling  a  blinding retinal disorder,  reported the American
Academy of Ophthalmology.  Study: The disorder was controlled in 88 percent of
60 patients treated in clinical trials.  Trial results will go to the cooking.net">food and

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Volume  2, Number 41                                      November  8, 1989

Drug Administration for approval of the drug.

                        SURGERY AIDS PHALLIC FUNCTION:

   Phallic reconstruction can now restore a man's ability to urinate and  have
sex, said the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. How: By
using  a  flap  of  skin  from the outer part of the forearm to create a "tube
within a tube" - one for the urethra and one for the penile shaft.

                         LASER GETS RID OF BIRTHMARKS:

   Physicians have begun using a new type of device called a "flashlamp pulsed
tunable dye laser" to remove or lighten birthmarks.  The laser is effective on
portwine  stains  and  can  remove  {*filter*}  vessel overgrowths that can obscure
vision and distort {*filter*} features.

                          GENETICS LINKED TO DISEASE:

   Studies have shown that  some  forms  of  periodontitis  run  in  families,
reports  the  American  Academy  of Periodontology.  Suggests:  Testing family
members  of  patients  suffering  from  juvenile,   prepubertal   or   rapidly
progressive  periodontitis.  Reason:  Periodontitis  can be a warning sign for
other diseases that need medical attention.

                                 Nov. 2, 1989

                        SURGEON GENERAL NOMINEE NAMED:

   President Bush has selected R.  Antonia Novello as the nominee for  surgeon
general, said the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Louis
W.  Sullivan M.D. Wednesday. Novello has been involved in improving the health
of the nation's children and has worked with children with AIDS.

                          GLOBAL AIDS OUTLOOK BLEAK:

   Complacency and  increasing  outbreaks  are  two  major  reasons  the  AIDS
epidemic  will  likely  be  worse  than expected in the 1990s,  said the World
Health Organization Program on AIDS.  Also,  the gap between the pace  of  the
epidemic and prevention and control efforts could widen.  Future:  5.4 million
new AIDS cases, 10 million to 20 million HIV cases.

                        SINGLE WOMEN AT RISK FOR AIDS:

   A new Gallup poll shows 6 million single women in the USA ages 18 to 40 are
at moderate to high risk of getting AIDS.  Why: Because they have multiple sex
partners  and  are not using {*filter*}s regularly.  Other findings - smart,  rich
women are fooling themselves into believing AIDS is not  an  issue  for  them.
(From the USA TODAY Life section.)

                           DIABETES RISK FOR WOMEN:

   Having  children  slightly  increases  a woman's risk for diabetes later in
life.  And a University of California, San Diego,  study says the risk goes up

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with  each  pregnancy.  Type  Two  diabetes  affects  about  18 percent of the
nation's women by age 74,  making them unable to  produce  enough  insulin  to
control the sugar in their {*filter*}. (From the USA TODAY Life section.)

                             PANIC, SUICIDE LINK:

   People  who  suffer  from panic attacks are 18 times more likely to attempt
suicide than people without mental illness,  reports  a  Columbia  University.
According  to  a  recent study,  18,000 {*filter*}s says these folks are also three
times more likely to  attempt  suicide  than  people  with  other  psychiatric

                           MANY WOMEN GET POOR CARE:

   Six{*filter*} percent of the women who give birth in the U.S.  receive inadequate
prenatal care,  said the New York-based Alan Guttmacher  Institute.  Findings:
Many women start care after the fourth month of pregnancy,  or have fewer than
half the number of prenatal checkups recommended by medical experts.

                                Nov. 3-5, 1989

                        SEARCH IS ON FOR GROWTH FACTOR:

   One of the biggest new  areas  of  brain  research  is  the  search  for  a
substance  in  the  body  that  stimulates  growth of specific brain and nerve
cells.  Once a "growth factor" is found copies will be genetically  engineered
and targeted to where cells are dying, a physician at Johns Hopkins University
said. (From the USA TODAY Life section.)

                           ONE SUCH STUDY UNDER WAY:

   Two  new  methods  for  causing  human  bones  to regenerate are now in the
experimental stage, reports the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive
Surgeons.  Purpose:  To allow patients with injuries,  birth defects and other
problems  heal  faster  and  have  fewer  operations.  Researchers are testing
electrically charged "beads" and a specific "growth factor"  to  promote  bone

                       WHITES PRONE TO TYPE I DIABETES:

   White  children  are  more  likely  than black children to develop insulin-
dependent diabetes,  according to epidemiological data from Jefferson  County,
Ala.,  reported  in  the  Journal  of  School  Health's October issue.  Type I
diabetes was less than half that for blacks than in white children.

                         GUM DISEASE EXPECTED TO RISE:

   The American Dental Association will  meet  this  weekend  in  Honolulu  to
discuss  the  problems  dentists  will  face  more  often  in the next decade.
According to research by Colgate:  Of 200 dentists surveyed,  64 percent think
gun disease will be the most serious problem in the 1990s. (From the USA TODAY
Life section.)

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                         UC SELECTED FOR TRANSPLANTS:

   The  Medical  Center  at  UC  San  Francisco has been named as one of seven
centers  nationwide  where  children  can  receive  allogeneic   bone   marrow
transplants  under  the  Prudential  Insurance  Co.  "Institutes  of  Quality"
program.  Why:  The company routes  patients  to  institutions  it  deems  has
superior track records in performing high-tech medical treatments.

                         SENIORS OPT TO PULL THE PLUG:

   A  majority  of  seniors  say  they  would  not  want  to  be kept alive by
artificial means if they were  beyond  medical  help,  reports  Mark  Clements
Research Inc. Thursday. The survey also found most seniors were satisfied with
their lives, financially independent and not afraid of death or dying.

                         DRUG SLOWS CELL DESTRUCTION:

   New animal research shows that an experimental compound -U74006f slows down
the  degeneration  of  nerve  cells,  reports  the  drug's producer The Upjohn
Company. Future use: Might be used to treat human diseases such as Parkinson's
and Alzheimer's diseases.

                        SURGEONS PROBE FOR MOTIVATIONS:

   Because more people are looking into plastic surgery, physicians are taking
more precautions before doing surgery,  said the American Society  of  Plastic
and  Reconstructive  Surgeons.  Why:  To identify patients who require special
attention such as those experiencing an acute crisis,  those with  unrealistic
expectations and patients with "minimal" defects.

                         TEST WILL PREDICT WHO SCARS:

   In  the  near future,  it may be possible to detect with a test individuals
who are at risk of developing unsightly scars or other wound-healing  problems
after  reconstructive  surgery,  said  the  American  Society  of  Plastic and
Reconstructive Surgeons.  How:  Researchers  are  using  the  cell  production
process to grow skin and study its makeup.

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Volume  2, Number 41                                      November  8, 1989

                      Center for Disease Control Reports

                     Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
                          Thursday  November 2, 1989

                        Epidemiologic Notes and Reports
      Outbreak of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in a Jail -- Texas, 1989

    Between September 6 and October 2,  1989,  invasive pneumococcal disease--
including bacteremic pneumonia,  meningitis,  and primary septicemia--occurred
in 12 inmates at a county jail in Texas.  Two patients died.  Five  additional
inmates  with  pneumonia  had  Streptococcus  pneumoniae  isolated from sputum
specimens.  All isolates from the  17  patients  were  serotype  12.  Four{*filter*}
patients  had  underlying conditions including {*filter*}ism and intravenous-drug
abuse, cirrhosis, and asplenia. One person reported having previously received
pneumococcal vaccine.  All patients were male;  their mean age was 30  (range:
19-53) years.
    The  jail  is  in  a  13-story  building that was constructed to hold 3500
inmates but houses a daily average of 6900 inmates (84% male).  Cases occurred
on seven of 10 floors used to house inmates. No cases occurred among 950 staff
    Immunization  with  the  23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine was
recommended for all inmates and staff; 79% of inmates accepted vaccination. In
addition,  inmates with underlying medical conditions received a 1-week course
of penicillin or erythromycin prophylaxis following vaccination.
    An  ongoing  investigation  is  focusing  on  risk  factors  for  disease,
mechanisms of transmission,  further characterization  of  the  isolates,  and
distribution  of  serotypes of invasive pneumococcal isolates from patients in
the surrounding community.  Active surveillance for pneumococcal  disease  has
been initiated within the jail.

Reported by:  J Pappas,  JE Arradondo,  MD,  KH Sullivan, PhD, City of Houston
Dept of Health and Human Svcs;  MA Canfield, MS, T Hyslop,  MD,  Harris County
Health Dept,  Houston;  KA Hendricks, MD, D Simpson, MD, State Epidemiologist,
Texas Dept of Health.  Respiratory Diseases Br,  Div  of  Bacterial  Diseases,
Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.

Editorial  Note:  In the pre-antibiotic period,  epidemic pneumococcal disease
was observed in a variety of settings  including  military  training  centers,
psychiatric  hospitals,  and  correctional  institutions  (1,2).  Pneumococcal
outbreaks are rarely reported now,  although two epidemics  have  occurred  in
shelters for homeless men (3,4).
    Crowding  and the medical status of the inmates may have been contributing
factors in the jail outbreak in Texas. Underlying conditions that increase the
risk for pneumococcal disease in {*filter*}s  include  chronic  cardiovascular  and
pulmonary  diseases,   diabetes  mellitus,  {*filter*}ism,  cirrhosis,  asplenia,
Hodgkin disease, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, chronic renal failure,  nephrotic
syndrome, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection,
age  greater  than or equal to 65 years,  and other conditions associated with
immunosuppression (5).  Of these factors,  {*filter*}ism and  trauma  (po  ssibly
predisposing   to  splenectomy)  are  common  among  inmates  of  correctional
facilities (6).  In  addition,  HIV  seroprevalence  rates  among  inmates  of

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Volume  2, Number 41                                      November  8, 1989

correctional  facilities  are  higher than in the general population (7).  The
epidemiology of pneumococcal  disease  in  institutional  settings  is  poorly
understood.   However,   because   this   disease  has  been  associated  with
overcrowding (2,3),  overcrowded correctional facilities may be  at  risk  for
pneumococcal outbreaks.
    Correctional  facilities' staff have the opportunity to immunize high-risk
inmates  for  pneumococcal  disease  during  medical  screening  at  time   of
incarceration.  However,  in  facilities  with  high rates of recidivism among
inmates, a policy of routine immunization may increase the likelihood of early
revaccination.  To prevent unnecessary revaccination, immunization programs in
correctional  facilities  need  to  include  a  means  of  identifying inmates
vaccinated during a previous incarceration.
    Further efforts are needed to delineate the epidemiology  of  pneumococcal
infections  in  institutional  environments  such as jails and prisons.  State
health departments are requested to notify  the  Respiratory  Diseases  Branch
(RDB), Division of Bacterial Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, of
clusters  of  cases  of  pneumococcal  disease  in  these  and other settings.
Information on pneumococcal disease is available from RDB at (404) 639-3021.


1. Hodges RG, MacLeod CM, Bernhard WG.  Epidemic pneumococcal pneumonia.  Am J
Hyg 1946;44:183-236.

2.   Heffron  R.  Pneumonia  with  special  reference  to  pneumococcus  lobar
pneumonia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1939, 1979.

3.  DeMaria A Jr, Browne K, Berk SL,  Sherwood EJ,  McCabe WR.  An outbreak of
type 1 pneu mococcal pneumonia in a men's shelter. JAMA 1980;244:1446-9.

4. Nguyen J, Grosset J, Dautzenberg B, Hubert B, Vaccarie M, Geslin P.  Type 1
pneumococcal  diseases:  two  successive outbreaks in men's shelters in Paris,
France  (Abstract).  In:  Program  and  abstracts  of  the  29th  Interscience
Conference  on  Antimicrobial  Agents  and  Chemotherapy.   Houston:  American
Society for Microbiology, 1989:145.

5. ACIP. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. MMWR 1989;38:64-8,73-6.

6.  Salive ME,  Brewer TF.  Medical care behind bars:  Maryland prison system.
Maryland  Med  J 1989;38:246-9.7.  CDC.  AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus
infection in the United States: 1988 update. MMWR 1989;38(no.S-4).

*The ISRA was a cooperative effort by  many  hospital  personnel  and  by  the
study's sponsors,  the Iowa Governor's Traffic Safety Bureau (supported by the
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) and the  Iowa  Traffic  Safety

Health InfoCom Network News                                             Page  8
Volume  2, Number 41                                      November  8, 1989

                 Safety-Restraint Assessment -- Iowa, 1987-88

    From  November  1987  to March 1988,  the Iowa Safety Restraint Assessment
(ISRA)* study gathered data on injuries to and hospital  charges  for  persons
who survived motor vehicle crashes and presented for emergency medical care at
one  of  16  hospitals in Iowa.  The par ticipating hospitals (seven rural and
nine urban) rep  resented  all  levels  of  trauma  care  and  all  geographic
quadrants of the state (Figure 1).
    The  1454 persons injured in motor vehicle crashes who were studied during
the 5-month period represented approximately  20%  of  all  persons  who  were
injured  and  who presented for emergency medical care in Iowa during the same
period.  Safety- restraint status was  determined  through  questions  to  the
patient  or ambulance personnel.  Of the 1454 injured persons,  697 (48%) were
wearing safety restraints at the time of the crash  (belted),  and  757  (52%)
were not (unbelted).  Unbelted persons were more likely than belted persons to
be male,  be younger,  have higher reported {*filter*} use at  the  time  of  the
crash,  and  report motor vehicle crash speeds greater than or equal to 55 mph
(Table 1).
    Twenty-seven percent of unbelted  persons  were  admitted  to  a  hospital
(Table  2).  Unbelted persons were three times more likely than belted persons
to be hospitalized,  8.4 times more likely to sustain a head injury with  loss
of consciousness,  2.7 times more likely to sustain a fracture,  and 2.8 times
more likely to sustain a laceration.  Strains or sprains  were  reported  more
frequently among belted than among unbelted persons.
    The  average  hospital  bill was significantly higher for unbelted ($2462)
than for belted persons ($753) (p less than 0.01).  The average hospital  stay
was  2.6  times  longer  for unbelted (16.9 days) than for belted persons (6.6
    Most injuries were minor and external (e.g.,  abrasions,  contusions,  and
lacerations)--391 (51.7%) among unbelted and 296 (42.5%) among belted persons.
Based  on  the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)--for which severity scores range
from 1 (minor) to 6 (most critical) for  each  anatomic  region  (1)--injuries
were more severe in all anatomic regions for unbelted than for belted persons.
These  differences  were  statistically significant (p less than 0.01) for all
areas except the face and the abdomen  and  pelvis.  For  head  injuries,  the
average AIS score was 1.6 for belted persons and 2.6 for unbelted persons; for
injuries  to the thorax,  the average score was 1.8 for belted persons and 2.3
for unbelted persons.  Overall,  the average AIS score was 1.2 for belted  and
1.5 for unbelted persons.
    At  both low- and high-impact speeds,  unbelted occupants were more likely
to incur head injuries, fractures, and lacerations. At low-impact speeds (less
than or equal to 30 mph), 1.1% of belted persons received head injuries; 3.7%,
fractures;  and 8.8%,  lacerations.  For unbelted persons,  7.8% incurred head
injuries;  9.5%,  fractures;  and  26.6%,  lacerations.  At high-impact speeds
(greater than 30 mph),  2.5% of belted persons received head injuries;  11.9%,
fractures;  and 16.3%, lacerations.  For unbelted persons, 20.3% received head
injuries; 29.8%, fractures; and 41.3%, lacerations.

Reported by:  TD Peterson, MD,  KM Royer,  Iowa Methodist Medical Center,  Des
Moines,  Iowa.  Biometrics Br,  Div of Injury Epidemiology and Control, Center
for Environmental Health and Injury Control, CDC.

Editorial Note:  This statewide hospital evaluation  of  motor  vehicle  crash
morbidity,  which  is  modeled  after a 1986 pilot study in Keokuk,  Iowa (2),
serves as a model for future injury surveillance.

Health InfoCom Network News                                             Page  9
Volume  2, Number 41                                      November  8, 1989

    Since July 1986,  Iowa has had a primary enforcement safety-restraint law.
Observational studies conducted by the Iowa Department of Transportation found
that  safety-restraint  compliance  was  56%  in  September  1987  and  55% in
September 1988 (3,4).  In the ISRA, 48% of injured persons were belted,  which
may  suggest  that  belted persons have fewer motor vehicle crashes and/or are
less likely to have injuries requiring emergency care.
    Most injuries reported were minor,  especially for belted  persons.  Minor
injuries  can  be a source of temporary disability and medical expense but are
seldom reported in case studies.  Soft-tissue injuries,  such as  strains  and
sprains, may be underreported among unbelted persons because seriously injured
patients are less likely (or unable) to complain about soft-tissue injury, and
trauma  teams  are less likely to address these injuries when life-threatening
injuries are present.
--- end part 1 of 2 cut here ---

Mon, 19 Apr 1993 03:59:00 GMT
 [ 1 post ] 

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