Cancer of the testis 
Author Message
 Cancer of the testis

Could someone give me some information on the cause, pathophysiology and
clinical manifestations and treatment of this type of cancer.

Thank you in advance, Jason.

Thu, 19 Oct 1995 17:39:46 GMT
 Cancer of the testis

|> Could someone give me some information on the cause, pathophysiology and
|> clinical manifestations and treatment of this type of cancer.

(I tried to respond directly, but it bounced.)

Cause: well, if I knew that....  There is an increase in the probability
of testicular cancer if a person is caucasion or has an undescended

As for the rest, I will include information from the National
Cancer Institute.  Feel free to ask me any other questions.  I know
quite a bit about this, as I had surgery for it 6 months ago.  NOTE:
I am including the information for patients.  There is another version
for physicians - it is very long but I can send it (or you can request it)
if you are interested.

         CancerNet from the National Cancer Institute's PDQ System

                        Information for Patients

Testicular cancer
-- What is PDQ? --

PDQ is a computer system that gives up-to-date information on cancer treatment.
It is a service of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for people with cancer
and their families, and for doctors, nurses, and other health care

PDQ tells about the current treatments for most cancers.  The information in
PDQ is reviewed each month by cancer experts.  It is updated when there is new
information.  The patient information in PDQ also tells about warning signs and
how the cancer is found.  PDQ also lists information about research on new
treatments (clinical trials), doctors who treat cancer, and hospitals with
cancer programs.

-- How to use PDQ --

You can use PDQ to learn more about current treatment for your kind of cancer.
Bring this material from PDQ with you when you see your doctor.  You can talk
with your doctor, who knows you and has the facts about your disease, about
which treatment would be best for you.  Before you start your treatment, you
might also want to seek a second opinion from a doctor who treats cancer.

Before you start treatment, you also may want to think about taking part in a
clinical trial.  A clinical trial is a study that uses new treatments to care
for patients.  Each study is based on past studies and what has been learned in
the laboratory.  Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to
find new and better ways to help cancer patients.  During clinical trials, more
and more information is collected about new treatments, their risks, and how
well they do or do not work.  If clinical trials show that the new treatment is
better than the treatment currently being used, the new treatment may become
the "standard" treatment.  Listings of clinical trials are a part of PDQ.  Many
cancer doctors who take part in clinical trials are listed in PDQ.

If you want to know more about cancer and how it is treated, or if you wish
to learn about clinical trials for your kind of cancer, you can call the
National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service. The number is
1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).  The call is free and a trained counselor will
talk with you and answer your questions.

PDQ may change when there is new information.  Check with the Cancer
Information Service to be sure that you have the most up-to-date information.


-- What is cancer of the testicle? --

Cancer of the testicle (also called the testis), a rare kind of cancer in men,
is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the tissues of one
or both {*filter*}.  The {*filter*} are round and a little smaller than golf
balls.  {*filter*} (the male germ cells that can join with a female egg to develop
into a baby) and male hormones are made in the {*filter*}.  There are two
{*filter*} located inside of the {*filter*} (a sac of loose skin that lies directly
under the {*filter*}).  The {*filter*} are similar to the ovaries in women (the small
sacs that hold the female egg cells).

Cancer of the testicle is the most common cancer in men 15 to 35 years old.
Men who have an undescended testicle (a testicle that has never moved down into
the {*filter*}) are at higher risk of developing cancer of the testicle than other
men whose {*filter*} have moved down into the {*filter*}.  This is true even if
surgery has been done to place the testicle in the appropriate place in the

Like most cancers, cancer of the testicle is best treated when it is found
(diagnosed) early.  Men should examine their {*filter*} regularly and feel for
any changes or lumps (you can find out how to do this exam by calling the
Cancer Information Service; see the last section of this statement ("To Learn
More") for more information).  You should see a doctor if you have any swelling
in your {*filter*}.  Your doctor will examine the {*filter*} and feel for any
lumps.  If the {*filter*} doesn't feel normal, your doctor may need to do an
ultrasound exam, which uses sound waves to make a picture of the inside of the
testes.  Your doctor may need to cut out the testicle and look at it under
a microscope to see if there are any cancer cells. It is very important that
this be done correctly.

Your chance of recovery (prognosis) and choice of treatment depend on the stage
of your cancer (whether it is just in the testicle or has spread to other
places) and your general state of health.


-- Stages of cancer of the testicle --

Once cancer of the testicle has been found, more tests will be done to find out
if the cancer has spread from the testicle to other parts of the body
(staging).  Your doctor needs to know the stage of your disease to plan
treatment.  The following stages are used for cancer of the testicle:

-- Stage I --
Cancer is found only in the testicle.

-- Stage II --
Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the abdomen (lymph nodes are small,
bean-shaped structures that are found throughout the body; they produce and
store infection-fighting cells).

-- Stage III --
Cancer has spread beyond the lymph nodes in the abdomen.  There may be cancer
in parts of the body far away from the {*filter*}, such as the lungs and liver.

-- Recurrent --
Recurrent disease means that the cancer has come back (recurred) after it has
been treated.  It may come back in the same place or in another part of the


-- How cancer of the testicle is treated --

There are treatments for all patients with cancer of the testicle, and most
patients can be cured with available treatments.  Three kinds of treatment are
  surgery (taking out the cancer in an operation)
  radiation therapy (using high-dose x-rays or other high-energy rays to kill
    cancer cells)
  chemotherapy (using {*filter*} to kill cancer cells).

Surgery is a common treatment for most stages of cancer of the testicle.  Your
doctor may take out the cancer by removing one or both {*filter*} through an
incision (cut) in the groin.  This is called a radical inguinal orchiectomy.
Some of the lymph nodes in the abdomen may also be removed (lymph node

Radiation therapy uses x-rays or other high-energy rays to kill cancer cells
and shrink tumors.  Radiation therapy for testicular cancer usually comes from
a machine outside the body (external beam radiation).

Chemotherapy uses {*filter*} to kill cancer cells.  Chemotherapy may be taken by
pill, or it may be put into the body by a needle in a vein.  Chemotherapy is
called a systemic treatment because the {*filter*} enter the {*filter*}stream, travel
through the body, and can kill cancer cells outside the testicle.

-- Treatment by stage --

Treatment for cancer of the testicle depends on the stage and cell type of your
disease, your age, and your overall condition.

You may receive treatment that is considered standard based on its
effectiveness in a number of patients in past studies, or you may choose to go
into a clinical trial.  Not all patients are cured with standard therapy and
some standard treatments may have more side effects than are desired.  For
these reasons, clinical trials are designed to find better ways to treat cancer
patients and are based on the most up-to-date information.  Clinical trials are
going on in many parts of the country for all stages of cancer of the testicle.
If you want more information, call the Cancer Information Service at
1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).

Treatment options: Stage I testicular cancer

Your treatment depends on what the cancer cells look like under a microscope
(cell type).  If you have a tumor called seminoma, your treatment will probably
be surgery to remove the testis (radical inguinal orchiectomy), followed by
external beam radiation to the lymph nodes in the abdomen.

If you have a tumor called a nonseminoma, your treatment may be one of the
  1. Radical inguinal orchiectomy and removal of some of the lymph nodes in the
     abdomen (lymph node dissection).  {*filter*} tests and chest x-rays must be
     done once each month for the first year following the operation and at
     least every 2 months during the second year.  A CT scan, a special kind of
     x-ray, may also be done.  If results of the tests don't look normal and
     your cancer has recurred (come back), your doctor will give you systemic
     chemotherapy as soon as possible.
  2. Clinical trials of radical inguinal orchiectomy alone followed by careful
     testing to see if the cancer comes back.  Your doctor must check you and
     do {*filter*} test and x-rays every month for 2 years.  This option is chosen
     only if the tumor has certain special features.

Treatment options: Stage II testicular cancer

Your treatment depends on what the cancer cells look like under a microscope
(cell type).  If you have a tumor called a seminoma and your tumor is nonbulky
(no lymph nodes can be felt in your abdomen, and no lymph nodes block the
ureters [the tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder]), your
treatment will probably be surgery to remove the testis (radical ...

read more »

Sun, 22 Oct 1995 00:14:32 GMT
 Cancer of the testis
How does one determine the difference between testicular cancer and a
{*filter*} granuloma? (post vasectomy)

Sun, 22 Oct 1995 07:56:18 GMT
 [ 3 post ] 

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