HICN242 News Part 1/2 
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 HICN242 News Part 1/2

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

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              !              Health Info-Com Network           !
              !                    Newsletter                  !
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                         Editor: David Dodell, D.M.D.
                   St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center
    10250 North 92nd Street, Suite 210, Scottsdale, Arizona 85258-4599 USA
                           Telephone (602) 860-1121
         FAX Available - Call/Write/Email for Additional Information

   Copyright 1989 - Distribution on Commercial/Pay Systems Prohibited without
                              Prior Authorization

             International Distribution Coordinator: Robert Klotz
                            Nova Research Institute
            217 South Flood Street, Norman, Oklahoma 73069-5462 USA
                           Telephone (405) 366-3898

The Health Info-Com Network Newsletter is distributed weekly.  Articles  on  a
medical  nature  are  welcomed.  If  you  have an article,  please contact the
editor for information on how to submit it.  If you are intrested  in  joining
the distribution system please contact the distribution coordinator.

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                       T A B L E   O F   C O N T E N T S

1.  Medical News
     Medical News for Week Ending November 12, 1989 ........................  1

2.  Center for Disease Control Reports
     [MMWR 11-9-89] The Rocky Mountain Tobacco-Free Challenge ..............  7
     Trends in Cigarette Smoking ........................................... 10
     Medical Examiner Report of Deaths Associated with Hurricane Hugo ...... 12

3.  Articles
     Test for HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) on Horizon? .......................... 17

4.  General Announcments
     Announcement of CUSSNET Mailing LIst .................................. 18

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

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                                 Medical News
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

                Medical News for Week Ending November 12, 1989
        Copyright 1989: USA TODAY/Gannett National Information Network
                           Reprinted with Permission

                                      ---
                                 Nov. 6, 1989
                                      ---

                        MANY KIDS WITH HIGH FAT LEVELS:

   One in five American children may have high cholesterol,  said the American
Heart  Association  and  the  American Academy of Pediatrics.  Recommendation:
Routine cholesterol  checks  for  all  children.  (From  the  USA  TODAY  Life
section.)

                            DRUG CASES ESCALATING:

   Hospitals in the U.S. are reporting record numbers of emergency drug cases,
reports  the  National Institute on Drug Abuse.  Study:  A survey of 19 cities
showed that 16 had high numbers  of  treatments  for  {*filter*},  {*filter*}  and
{*filter*}, in that order. (From the USA TODAY News section.)

                          HIGH-TECH TOOL SAVES TEETH:

   The  words  root c{*filter*}are loosing their bite,  reports the American Dental
Association.  Why:  New  high-tech  dental  instrument  that  uses  electrical
resistance  senses  the exact location of the tip of the root.  This way,  the
dentist can remove the infected tissue quickly, efficiently.

                        PORTABLE DEVICE HELPS RESEARCH:

   A new technological portable sleep apnea screening device can  be  used  at
home, said Dr.  Jeffrey N.  Nausfeld, medical director for the Medlantic Sleep
Disorders Center. Why: To monitor an individual's body functions, respiration,
oxygen levels, chest movement and heart rate to diagnose sleep disorders.

                          {*filter*}FEEDING AND MEDICINE:

   It's OK to take prescribed  medication  and  {*filter*}feed,  as  long  as  the
medication is taken as directed by a doctor for a short period of time. That's
according to a new policy statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics. But
the  group  warns that nicotine and {*filter*} {*filter*} such as {*filter*},  {*filter*} and
{*filter*} are harmful to {*filter*}feeding infants.

                        COMPUTER IMAGING HELPS SMILES:

   Computer imaging is helping dental patients and  dentists  make  decisions,
reports the American Dental Association.  How: The computer shows patients how
their teeth will look after a procedure.  Imaging  computers  are  becoming  a
mandatory piece of office equipment for dentists doing cosmetic procedures.

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

                        TECHNOLOGY SAVING SENIOR TEETH:

  The number of people in their 70s and 80s who  have  kept  their  teeth  has
increased  dramatically,  said  Dr.  Linda Niessen,  director of the Geriatric
Central Program,  Veterans Administration Medical  Center,  Perry  Point,  Md.
Reasons: Electric toothbrushes, {*filter*}irrigators and special floss holders that
help seniors with physical limitations clean teeth.

                          STRESS CAUSES PAIN IN NECK:

   Stress  can  cause  a  literal  pain  in the neck,  said Dr.  Terry Tanaka,
director  of  {*filter*}  Pain  and  TM  Clinic,   San  Diego.   Why:   Caused  by
Temporomandibular joint disorder.  Symptoms:  Tension headaches,  pain in neck
and shoulders to popping and clicking in jaw joints. Relief: Physical therapy,
ice or heat application, ultrasound treatments.

                            FDA APPROVES EYE LENS:

   Ioptec Research Inc. said it has received the cooking.net">food and Drug Administrations
approval for a single-piece version of its SMART "small incision" IOL used  in
cataract  surgery.  Features:  Requires a 5mm incision that can be closed with
one suture.  Results:  Speeds healing,  reduces post-operative astigmatism and
dependency on glasses after surgery.

                            PARENTS SHOULD GO AWAY:

   An  effective way parents can assist their child at the dentist's office is
by staying out of the treatment room, reports the American Dental Association.
Why: Dentist must establish trust between child and parent.  How:  Parent must
allow the dentist to work directly with the child. This way, the dentist helps
make good patients out of children.

                                      ---
                                 Nov. 7, 1989
                                      ---

                           LOSS OF WEIGHT IMPORTANT:

   A  recent  survey found that moms who haven't regained their figures a year
after the baby's birth pay in terms of lower self-esteem and  angry  husbands,
reports the University of Minnesota, St. Paul. Conclusion: Society places high
value  on  thinness,  so much so it can affect the quality of marriage for men
and a woman's self-image. (From the USA TODAY Life section.)

                           WAFER COULD FIGHT TUMORS:

   Scientists at Johns Hopkins,  Nova  Pharmaceutical  and  the  Massachusetts
Institute of Technology are testing the effectiveness of a bioerodible polymer
wafer's ability to fight tumors.  How: The drug controlled-released wafers are
implanted in patients with brain tumors. Results: It has proven safe.

                         URBAN HEALTH CARE IN TROUBLE:

   America faces an inevitable disaster in the 1990s over the issue  of  urban
health care, reports Reed Tuckson, M.D., commissioner of public health for the

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

District  of  Columbia  at  a health care symposium.  Why:  Because of growing
disparity between those who can and cannot afford health  care.  Tuckson  says
most of the urban poor can't get basic health care.

                         STANDING GETS JUICES FLOWING:

   Standing,  rather than sitting, during meetings increases energy levels and
lung and breathing capacity, reports Dr.  Roger Flax president of Motivational
Systems,  West  Orange,  N.J.  Flax  recommends  people stand during meetings.
Results: Participants don't lose concentration by eating, drinking, smoking or
doodling.

                        DNA TESTS USED FOR GUM DISEASE:

   In the next two years,  dentists could start using DNA probes to tell if  a
patient has periodontal disease, reports the American Dental Association. How:
DNA  probes would identify the bacteria in pockets around teeth to confirm the
presence or absence of gum disease.

                       {*filter*} RECONSTRUCTION UNPOPULAR:

   Many women who've undergone mastectomies don't  take  advantage  of  {*filter*}
reconstruction,  reports  the  American  Society of Plastic and Reconstructive
Surgery.  Why:  Personal choice not to have the surgery,  concern over  cancer
recurrence, fear over complications what the surgery will accomplish.

                                      ---
                                 Nov. 8, 1989
                                      ---

                         TEST DETECTS CYSTIC FIBROSIS:

   Integrated  Genetics  said  Tuesday it is making available a rapid,  direct
test for the cystic fibrosis gene. The test is expected to identify 70 percent
of all carriers of the defective gene.  Cystic fibrosis  is  the  most  common
lethal  genetic  disease  of  children  in  the U.S.  (From the USA TODAY Life
section.)

                          SNORING IS A WARNING SIGN:

   A new study suggests that snoring may be a sign of risk for stroke, reports
neurologists at the University of Helsinki in Finland.  Findings:  Researchers
found  that  those  who  snored were more than three times as likely to have a
stroke during sleep.  Reason:  Unknown, but suggests that those who snore also
may suffer from sleep apnea, which is associated with stroke.

                        HIGH {*filter*} REDUCES CANCER RISK:

   Women  who have had high {*filter*} pressure before the end of their most recent
full-term pregnancy had a lower risk of {*filter*} cancer,  reports  the  National
Cancer Institute. Why: High {*filter*} pressure during pregnancy causes high levels
of the chemical alpha fetoprotein in the {*filter*}.  AFP in rat studies blocks the
growth of {*filter*} tumors dependent on estrogen.

                          FAMILY DETERMINES DISORDER:

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

   Bulimic girls have different relationships with their parents than do girls
who suffer anorexia, reports a Northwestern University Medical School.  Study:
Parents  of  anorexics tend to be very affectionate toward daughters,  but had
trouble encouraging daughters to assert  their  needs,  feelings.  Parents  of
bulimics were non-supportive, negative.

                        NEW TREATMENT FOR SKIN ULCERS:

   Researchers  from  Harvard  and  Boston  universities  report that cultured
grafts from the foreskins of newborn infants are an  effective  treatment  for
skin  ulcers,  reports the American Academy of Dermatology.  Facts:  Of ulcers
treated with the grafts,  73 percent healed completely within eight weeks;  28
percent after one week. Benefits: Grafts eliminate need for skin biopsies.

                          SOUND WAVES COULD END PAIN:

   Phonophoresis,  high frequency sound waves,  may soon eliminate the use for
anesthetic injections during dental procedure,  reports  the  American  Dental
Association. The association announced that the technique is just entering the
research phase.

                           NOSE JOB TAKES NEW ROUTE:

   An  increasing  number  of  black and Oriental people want to reshape their
nose, but few want to look Caucasian,  reports the American Society of Plastic
and  Reconstructive  Surgeons.  Findings:  When they bring in pictures of what
they want,  the people in the photos are usually from the same race or  ethnic
group.  They  just want noses that are more in proportion to the rest of their
face.

                        PREGNANT WOMEN NEED MORE CARE:

   Women need more dental care when  pregnant,  reports  the  American  Dental
Association.  Why:  More  common incidences of inflammation of the gums,  more
dental plaque during that time.  Facts:  Most routine dental procedures can be
performed safely during the second trimester of pregnancy.

                                      ---
                                 Nov. 9, 1989
                                      ---

                        ASIAN BABIES NEED VACCINATION:

   All  newborn  children of refugees from Southeast Asia should be vaccinated
against hepatitis B,  recommends a study by the Federal  Centers  for  Disease
Control in Wednesday's New England Journal of Medicine. Reason: The disease is
common in Southeast Asia. (From the USA TODAY Life section.)

                          {*filter*} TENDENCIES THE SAME:

   A  study  of  about  900  mother-child  pairs  of  white women and children
supports the hypothesis that adolescents who are close to  their  mothers  are
more  likely  to  report  attitudes toward {*filter*} {*filter*} that are similar
with the mothers' attitudes than  adolescents  who  are  not  close  to  their

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

mothers, reports Demography's November issue.

                        REVERSING CHOLESTEROL POSSIBLE:

   The  cholesterol-lowering agent probucol may enhance the natural process of
removing excess  cholesterol  from  the  body,  reports  Dr.  Ruth  McPherson,
director  of  lipid  research at McGill University,  Montreal.  How:  Probucol
increases levels of a protein that is key to getting rid of cholesterol.

                          FERTILITY MONITOR UNVEILED:

   A computerized fertility analyzer - the Fertil-A-Chron Bioself 110 -  tells
a women the best time during her cycle to get pregnant.  Produced by Fertil-A-
Chron, Deer Park, N.Y.,  the device takes the woman's temperature,  stores the
data  for  up to 64 consecutive days and uses different color light signals to
flag fertile or non-fertile days. Success rate: 94 percent.

                           GLAUCOMA CONFERENCE SET:

   A national news conference presented in part by  the  National  Society  To
Prevent  Blindness  will  be  held  Nov.  12-18,  on  the  eve  of  the  first
presidentially proclaimed "National Glaucoma Awareness Week."  Why:  To  alert
the  public  to  the  seriousness  of  glaucoma,  the  second-leading cause of
blindness among all Americans and the leading cause of blindness  among  black
Americans.

                         MORE BLACKS ARE {*filter*} FATHERS:

   Young men who go steady, are black and have relaxed views on out-of-wedlock
child  bearing  are more likely than other adolescents to become {*filter*} fathers,
reports Sandra L.  Hanson at The Catholic University of  America.  Conclusion:
Parents  need  to  be  aware  of  the  influence steady dating and their son's
attitudes have on early childbearing.

                        SKULL CROWN MEASURES PRESSURE:

   A palm-sized plastic cup has been designed by researchers at The University
of Texas health Science Center,  San Antonio,  to measure pressure  under  the
"soft  spot"  on  the top front of a newborn's head.  Use:  Non-evasive way to
assess water on  the  brain,  hemorrhage;  lowers  infection  risk  caused  by
monitors that had been place in the skull.

                           JOB AFFECTS SON'S GROWTH:

   A  mother's  employment  in a boy's first year has a negative effect on his
intellectual development in middle income families,  reports social scientists
associated  with  NORC,  a  research  center affiliated with the University of
Chicago.  Why:  Greater loss of opportunity for  stimulation  than  the  lower
income child.

                                      ---
                               Nov. 10-12, 1989
                                      ---

                          ALZHEIMER'S COMMON DISEASE:

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

   A  new  study  concludes  that Alzheimer's disease is much more common than
previously thought.  Findings:  About 47.2 percent of people over age  85  may
have  Alzheimer's disease compared to a previous estimate of 20 percent,  said
Dr.  Denis Evans of Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston.  (From the USA TODAY
Life section.)

                        WATCH OUT FOR REYE'S SYNDROME:

   The  risk  of  contracting  Reye's  Syndrome,  a rare but potentially fatal
disease that affects all organs of the body,  increases during the flu season,
reports the Children's Miracle Network,  Salt Lake City.  Reminder:  Don't use
aspirin to treat influenza,  chicken pox and colds in children.  Studies  have
shown an association between the use of aspirin and the disease.

                        WRONG IDEAS FOSTER VISION LOSS:

   Widespread  misconceptions  about  the  symptoms  and treatment of glaucoma
could be adding to unnecessary vision loss in thousands of Americans, a Gallup
survey suggests.  Why:  Many believe pressure in eyes is  the  first  sign  of
disease  and that eye damage from glaucoma can be corrected.  Both assumptions
are wrong.  Suggestions: Greater public awareness; regular eye exams.

                         TESTS IDENTIFIES HDL LEVELS:

   A new {*filter*}  test  that  identifies  high-density  lipoprotein  cholesterol
levels  from  a  fingerstick sample was unveiled Thursday by Abbott Lab.  Use:
Researchers believe a total cholesterol count combined with an HDL test  is  a
superior  screening  method  for  determining  heart  disease risk.  The tests
produces results in 20 minutes.

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

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                      Center for Disease Control Reports
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

                     Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
                          Thursday  November 9, 1989

                     State-Based Chronic Disease Control:
                   The Rocky Mountain Tobacco-Free Challenge

    In 1984,  the Surgeon General set as a goal a "smoke-free society" in  the
United States by the year 2000 (1).  To help meet this goal, in February 1988,
the governors of eight states--Arizona, Colorado, Montana,  New Mexico,  North
Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming--initiated the Rocky Mountain Tobacco-
Free Challenge (RMTFC), a regional effort to reduce the prevalences of tobacco
use and chronic diseases associated with tobacco use.  The RMTFC will continue
until the year 2000;  each year,  based on evaluation  of  efforts  to  reduce
tobacco  use,  the RMTFC plans to designate one state as the challenge leader.
Based on information reviewed by the  evaluation  panel  in  May  1989,  North
Dakota was the leader after the first year of the RMTFC.
    Health  education  directors  of  the  participating  states developed the
following objectives for each of the eight states for the year 2000:  1) a 50%
reduction in the prevalence of tobacco use among {*filter*}s and adolescents, 2) an
overall  50% reduction in tobacco consumption,  3) a 25% reduction in tobacco-
attributable mortality,  and 4) statewide clean indoor air laws that eliminate
environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public places and worksites.  Baseline
data for these objectives are available  from  different  national  and  state
sources (2-5) (Table 1).
    For  1988-89,   the  RMTFC  had  two  components.   First,  12  areas  for
intervention were designated:  coalition building  and  networking;  community
information  and  education;   counteradvertising;   economic  incentives  and
disincentives; higher education; legislation; policy;  professional education;
program   planning   and  evaluation;   schools;   special  populations;   and
miscellaneous.
    State health departments solicited for review descriptions of  ongoing  or
planned tobacco-use reduction programs from local agencies,  volunteer groups,
and coalitions.  One hundred twenty-three descriptions were submitted  in  the
eight states.  Each state then chose one program from each of the 12 areas for
evaluation by the Office on Smoking  and  Health  (OSH),  Center  for  Chronic
Disease  Prevention  and Health Promotion,  CDC,  which is providing technical
assistance to the RMTFC.  OSH and  experts  from  other  federal,  state,  and
voluntary  health  agencies determined from all submissions the most effective
program for each area.
    For the second component,  OSH  and  the  eight  states  collected  state-
specific baseline data to help the panel assess the overall tobacco prevention
and  control activity within each state.  A standard questionnaire was used to
obtain information on tobacco-use surveillance, health department policies and
programs, legislative activities, coalitions, school activities, demographics,
and state government activities.  The panel used these data to determine which
states  had the most effective programs for reducing the prevalence of tobacco
use.
    North Dakota was judged to be the leader  after  the  first  year  of  the
RMTFC;  New  Mexico and Colorado ranked second and third,  respectively.  Most
states emphasized public information programs in their efforts to  reduce  the
prevalence  of  tobacco use.  Because less emphasis has been placed on primary

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Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

and secondary education programs and surveillance,  the RMTFC demonstrated  an
overall  need  in  the  region for improved surveillance of adolescent smoking
behavior (Table 1).

Reported by:  WF Young,  MA,  Div of Prevention  Programs,  Colorado  Dept  of
Health.  D Vilnius, MPA, Bur of Health Promotion and Risk Reduction, Utah Dept
of Health.  S Adams, MS,  Div of Health Promotion and Education,  North Dakota
State Dept of Health.  M Futa, MA, Health Risk Reduction Program, Wyoming Dept
of Health and Social Svcs.  B Lancaster,  MA,  Office of Health Promotion  and
Education,  Arizona Dept of Health Svcs.  R Moon,  MPH, Preventive Health Svcs
Bur,  Montana Dept of Health and Environmental Svcs.  L Pendley,  MHS,  Health
Promotion Bur,  New Mexico Health and Environment Dept.  L Post, MPH, P Marso,
Health Education/Promotion Program, South Dakota Dept of Health.  Program Svcs
Activity,  Office on Smoking and Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention
and Health Promotion, CDC.

Editorial Note Key elements of the RMTFC include the active  participation  of
the  eight  state  governors,   increased  community  interest,   strengthened
interstate and intrastate collaboration,  promotion  of  state  activities  to
reduce  tobacco  use,  and  implementation of long-term evaluation of tobacco-
related policies.  The competitive approach employed by the eight states is  a
model  that other regions of the country can adopt for innovative tobacco-use-
reduction activities.
    To facilitate planning for  state-based  tobacco-control  activities,  the
Association  of  State  and  Territorial  Health  Officials  has published and
distributed the Guide to Public Health Practice:  State Health Agency  Tobacco
Prevention  and  Control  Plans (6).  Strategies for implementation of tobacco
prevention and control plans outlined in this guide  include  use  of  federal
resources;  development  of  coalitions  and  advisory  groups;  assessment of
tobacco use in the state through surveys;  development of a mission with goals
and  objectives;  analysis  of existing tobacco-control programs and resources
and the potential to expand on these programs;  and presentation,  evaluation,
and  revision  of  the  plan.*  Examples  of successful tobacco prevention and
control plans include those already developed by North Dakota, New Mexico, and
Colorado.
    Stimulation of activity at the local level (e.g.,  communities,  counties,
and  coalitions)  is  essential  to  effective tobacco control and may promote
national progress toward a smoke-free society.  On  November  16,  the  annual
Great  American  Smokeout will emphasize nationwide efforts at the local level
to reduce the prevalence of smoking.  Sponsored  each  year  by  the  American
Cancer Society,  this event serves as a focal point for support of smokers who
are trying to quit.  During the  24-hour  period  of  the  1988  Smokeout,  an
estimated  18.4  million smokers tried to quit smoking,  and approximately 5.4
million refrained from smoking during the entire 24-hour period (7).

References

1.  Koop CE.  Julia M.  Jones Lecture:  A smoke-free society by the year 2000.
Presented at the annual meeting of the American Lung Association, Miami Beach,
May 20, 1984.

2.  CDC.  Behavi{*filter*} risk  factor  surveillance 1987,  selected states.  MMWR
1989;38:469-73.

3.  Tobacco Institute.  The tax burden  on  tobacco:  historical  compilation.

Health InfoCom Network News                                             Page  8
Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

Washington, DC: The Tobacco Institute, 1988;23:29.

4.  CDC.  State-specific estimates of smoking-attributable mortality and years
of potential life lost--United States, 1985. MMWR 1988;37:689-93.

5.  CDC.  Reducing the health consequences of smoking: 25 years of progress--a
report of the Surgeon General.  Rockville,  Maryland:  US Department of Health
and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1989; DHHS publication no. (CDC)89-
8411.

6.  Association of State  and  Territorial  Health  Officials/National  Cancer
Institute.  Guide  to  public  health  practice:  state  health agency tobacco
prevention and control plans.  McLean,  {*filter*}ia:  Association  of  State  and
Territorial Health Officials, 1989.

7.  Lieberman  Research Inc.  A study of the impact of the 1988 Great American
Smokeout:  summary report,  Gallup Organization.  New  York:  American  Cancer
Society, 1988.

*Copies  of the Guide may be obtained after January 1,  1990,  from either the
Cancer Communications Branch, National Cancer Institute, telephone (301) 496-
6792, or the Technical Information Center, OSH, telephone (301) 443-1690.

Health InfoCom Network News                                             Page  9
Volume  2, Number 42                                      November 16, 1989

              Trends in Cigarette Smoking -- Wisconsin, 1950-1988

    To assess  progress  in  reducing  cigarette  smoking  in  Wisconsin,  the
Division  of  Health,  Wisconsin  Department  of  Health  and Social Services,
analyzed trends in cigarette sales  from  1950  to  1988  (1).  In  Wisconsin,
cigarette taxes are levied as an excise tax at the time cigarettes are shipped
from  tobacco  distribution  centers  rather  than  as  sales  tax at the time
consumers purchase them.  To compensate for the time lag between shipment  and
sale,  a  2-year  moving  average*  of  per  capita  cigarette  sales  (2) was
calculated.  In this  report,  per  capita  sales  are  the  total  number  of
cigarettes  for  which  Wisconsin  state  excise  tax was paid in a given year
divided by the number of Wisconsin {*filter*}s (i.e.,  residents  greater  than  or
equal to 18 years old).
    In  1951,  105  packs of cigarettes (20 cigarettes per pack) were sold for
every {*filter*} in the state (Figure 1). Per capita cigarette sales peaked in 1981
at 118 packs per Wisconsin {*filter*}.  Four periods had sustained (greater than or
equal to 3 years) declines in tobacco sales:  1954-1956, 1962-1966, 1969-1971,
and 1982-1984. The greatest decline (10%) occurred from 1982 to 1983.

Adapted from: Wisconsin Medical Journal 1989;88(11):40-2, and reported by:  PL
Remington,  MD,  HA Anderson,  MD, Div of Health, Wisconsin Dept of Health and
Social Svcs. Div of Field Svcs, Epidemiology Program Office; Office on Smoking
and Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.

Editorial Note:  Since the  1950s,  when  studies  linking  lung  cancer  with
cigarette  smoking  were  first published,  efforts to discourage smoking have
increased substantially (3).  These efforts have  included  mandatory  warning
labels   on   cigarette  packs,   physicians'  advice  to  quit,   antismoking
advertising,  worksite smoking-cessation programs,  increased  restriction  on
places  to  smoke,  reduced  insurance premiums for nonsmokers,  and increased
taxes on cigarettes.
    In Wisconsin, the first three periods of decline in per capita sales might
have been related to major national smoking and health "events" (4). The 1954-
1956 decline coincided with the first major publicity on  adverse  effects  of
smoking  on  health,  a  1952  national  magazine  article  linking cancer and
cigarettes  (4);  the  1962-1966  decline,  with  the  release  of  additional
information  about  adverse  effects,  especially  the first Surgeon General's
report on smoking and health in 1964;  and the  1969-1971  decline,  with  the
television  broadcast of antismoking public service announcements during 1967-
--- end part 1 of 2 cut here ---



Mon, 19 Apr 1993 04:49:00 GMT
 
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